Sources

Websites:

PhiladelphiaEncyclopedia.org

BlackPast.org

Social Welfare History Project

Books and Print Articles:

Berlin, Ira. “Slavery, Freedom, and Philadelphia’s Struggle for Brotherly Love, 1685-1861.” In Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia: Emancipation and the Long Struggle for Justice in the City of Brotherly Love, edited by Richard Newman and James Mueller, 19-41. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.

George, Carol V. R. Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Rise of Independent Black Churches, 1760-1840. New York, London and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Henretta, James, “Richard Allen and African-American Identity,” Early America Review 1, (Spring 1997)

Newman, Richard. Freedom’s Prophet. Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers. New York and London: New York University Press, 2008.

Winch, Julie. “Self-Help and Self-Determination: Black Philadelphians and the Dimensions of Freedom.” In Antislavery and Abolition in Philadelphia: Emancipation and the Long Struggle for Justice in the City of Brotherly Love, edited by Richard Newman and James Mueller, 66-89. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.